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بابهتهكهم لهسهر نهوتي خاوه ئهمهيش بابهتهكهيه
It is not known exactly when humankind first used petroleum. It is known, however, that ancient peoples
worshipped sacred fires that were fuelled by natural gas seeping to the surface through pores and cracks. It is
also known that asphalt, a very viscous form of petroleum, was used to waterproof boats and heat homes as
early as 6,000 BC. Asphalt was also used as an embalming age nt for mummies and in the construction of the
Egyptian pyramids around 3,000 BC. Petroleum's usefulness, so it seems, was recognized from the very be-
ginnings of civilization.
Petroleum's importance to humankind took a giant leap in the late 1800's when it replaced coal as the primary
fuel for the machines of the industrial revolution. In today's industrialized society, petroleum means power.
It provides the mechanical power to run machines and industries and also the political power that comes from
being able to shut down the machines and industries of those who depend on you for their oil supply.
Today, petroleum remains our primary source of energy, and today, the province of Newfoundland is prepar-
ing to become an important player in the Canadian oil industry. A number of large oil and natural gas fields
were discovered offshore Newfoundland and Labrador during the 1970’s and 1980’s and more discoveries
are expected to be made with further drilling.
We are now developing our offshore petroleum resources, and this has the potential to have significant eco-
nomic and social impacts on our province. To reap the maximum benefits from petroleum developments, we
need to understand this new industry. By educating ourselves as individuals, we can be in a better position to
take advantage of the resultant employment and business opportunities. By educating ourselves as a popula-
tion, we can help ensure our governments make good decisions in relation to this industry that will serve the
long term interests of our people. This manual is intended to play a role in this education process. It at-
tempts to give a basic understanding of the petroleum industry; where it started, why it is important, and how
it works. It takes the student through the different phases of petroleum exploration, development and produc-
tion and discusses some of the careers associated with the petroleum industry. The last two chapters are
workshops which do not introduce any new material, but which require the students to draw upon knowledge
gained in the first ten chapters and conduct some research of their own.
This manual has been designed around the belief that the most enjoyable and effective means of lear ning is
by doing. Each chapter contains several pages of text followed by a few review questions and one or more
exercises. In most cases, it is important that the student understand the text part of the chapter to appreciate
the exercises. Each activity attempts to illustrate at least one important concept. In cases where the ideas to
be explained did not easily lend themselves to illustration by simple activities, the activities are to be re-
placed by the viewing of pertinent films.
The development of Newfoundland offshore oil is coming at a time when we have become highly sensitized
to environmental issues and yet remain very dependent on petroleum. As we proceed with offshore develop-
ment, we must bear in mind the lessons that have been learned elsewhere and the special challenge our off-
shore area presents to the oil industry. We must ensure that our offshore petroleum resources are developed
wisely and, in cooperation with the fishery so that we can reap maximum benefits from both industries.
These noble goals can best be achieved with input from a well informed public and it is hoped that this man-
ual will be useful for those who want to become informed about this increasing important sector of our econ-
لهسهر هێڵ نییه